This book presents some of the most important tools in the field of energy conservation. . 1 Introduction to Energy Management and Conservation Frank Kreith. PDF | This book provides an overall view of energy conversion and analysis of energy saving investment and education in the field of energy. This book deals primarily with energy management and conservation in existing buildings. However, there are many suggestions in the book that should be.
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This will bring down the distribution loss in cables.
The efficiency of the transformers not only depends on the design, but also, on the effective operating load. Transformer losses consist of two parts: No-load loss and Load loss 1. No-load loss also called core loss is the power consumed to sustain the magnetic field in the transformer's steel core.
Core loss occurs whenever the transformer is energized; core loss does not vary with load. Core losses are caused by two factors: hysteresis and eddy current losses.
Energy Conservation and Management
Hysteresis loss is that energy lost by reversing the magnetic field in Faris K. Eddy current loss is a result of induced currents circulating in the core.
Load loss also called copper loss is associated with full-load current flow in the trans- former windings. Copper loss is power lost in the primary and secondary windings of a transformer due to the ohmic resistance of the windings. Copper loss varies with the square of the load current. Resistive loads are incandescent lighting and resistance heating. In case of pure resistive loads, the voltage V , current I , resistance R relations are linearly related, i.
Motors, induction furnaces, transformers and ballast- type lighting. Inductive loads require two kinds of power: a active or working power to perform the work and b reactive power to create and maintain electro-magnetic fields.
Active power is measured in kW Kilo Watts. The vector sum of the active power and reactive power make up the total or apparent power used. This is the power generated by the SEBs for the user to perform a given amount of work. Fig 2.
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The vector sum of the two is called the apparent power or kVA, as illustrated above and the kVA reflects the actual electrical load on distribution system. The ratio of kW to kVA is called the power factor, which is always less than or equal to unity. Theoretically, when electric utilities supply power, if all loads have unity power factor, maximum power can be transferred for the same distribution system capacity.
However, as the loads are inductive in nature, with the power factor ranging from 0. They act as reactive power generators, and provide the needed reactive power to accomplish kW of work. This reduces the amount of reactive power, and thus total power, generated by the utilities.
A high power factor can help in utilizing the full capacity of your electrical system. Additional benefits are derived by capacitor location. The Figure 2. Maximum benefit of capacitors is derived by locating them as close as possible to the load. At this location, its kVAr are confined to the smallest possible segment, decreasing the load current.
This, in turn, will reduce power losses of the system substantially. Power losses are proportional to the square of the current. When power losses are reduced, voltage at the motor increases; thus, motor performance also increases.
Note that in all three locations extra switches are not required, since the capacitor is either switched with the motor starter or the breaker before the starter. Case C1A is recommended for new installation, since the maximum benefit is derived and the size of the motor thermal protector is reduced.
Case C1B is recommended in cases where the installation already exists and the thermal protector does not need to be re-sized. In position C1C, the capacitor is permanently connected to the circuit but does not require a separate switch, since capacitor can be disconnected by the breaker before the starter.
It should be noted that the rating of the capacitor should not be greater than the no-load magnetizing kVAr of the motor. If this condition exists, damaging over voltage or transient torques can occur.
This is why most motor manufacturers specify maximum capacitor ratings to be applied to specific motors. The next preference for capacitor locations as illustrated by Figure 1.
In these locations, a breaker or switch will be required. Location C4 requires a high voltage breaker. The advantage of locating capacitors at power centres or feeders is that they can be grouped together. When several motors are running intermittently, the capacitors are permitted to be on line all the time, reducing the total power regardless of load.
From energy efficiency point of view, capacitor location at receiving substation only helps the utility in loss reduction. Locating capacitors at tail end will help to reduce loss reduction within the plants distribution network as well and directly benefit the user by reduced consumption.
As the value of impedance in above devices is constant, they are called linear whereby the voltage and current relation is of linear nature. Harmonics are multiples of the fundamental frequency of an electrical power system. If, for example, the fundamental frequency is 50 Hz, then the 5th harmonic is five times that frequency, or Hz.
Likewise, the 7th harmonic is seven times the fundamental or Hz, and so on for higher order harmonics. Harmonics can be discussed in terms of current or voltage. A 5th harmonic current is simply a current flowing at Hz on a 50 Hz system.
The 5th harmonic current flowing through the system impedance creates a 5th harmonic voltage. Other causes of poor power quality include transients such as voltage spikes, surges, sags, and ringing. Because they repeat every cycle, harmonics are regarded as a steady- state cause of poor power quality. When expressed as a percentage of fundamental voltage THD is given by, where V1 is the fundamental frequency voltage and Vn is nth harmonic voltage component. Frequently these are devices that convert AC to DC.
The majority use a 6-pulse converter. Most loads which produce harmonics, do so as a steady-state phenomenon.
A snapshot reading of an operating load that is suspected to be non-linear can determine if it is producing harmonics. Normally each load would manifest a specific harmonic spectrum. Many problems can arise from harmonic currents in a power system. Some problems are easy to detect; others exist and persist because harmonics are not suspected.
Energy Efficiency and Management in Food Processing Facilities
Higher RMS cur- rent and voltage in the system are caused by harmonic currents, which can result in any of the problems listed below: Faris K. Blinking of Incandescent Lights - Transformer Saturation 2.
Capacitor Failure - Harmonic Resonance 3.
Conductor Failure - Inductive Heating 5. Electronic Equipment Shutting down - Voltage Distortion 6. Flickering of Fluorescent Lights - Transformer Saturation 7. Motor Failures overheating - Voltage Drop 9. Electromagnetic Load Failures - Inductive Heating This effect results from a simultaneous reduction of the temperature and of the amount of combustion gases discharged to the environment.
The analysis of the state of recuperation in the Polish metallurgy and machine-building industry has been presented in .
For the improvement of recuperation the following would be desirable: introduction of a modular design of steel-tube recuperators and the elaboration of typical modules, establishment of a specialized manufacturer producing modules of steel-tube convection recuperators and typical radiative recuperators, and elimination of technically unjustifiable leakage of furnaces and flues.
The heat transfer area in recuperators is limited mainly by the disposable chimney draft.
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The size of recuperators can be increased if forced draft is introduced . The combustion gas fan can be protected from too high a temperature by means of recirculation of combustion gases Fig. Increased fuel economy and economic effect could be obtained in this case.
If the volume of the recuperator were too great e. Instead of one great recuperator, two more convenient smaller heat exchangers can be installed in this case. Also, the long-distance transmission of heat recovered from combustion gases can be realized by means of an intermediate heat carrier, e.
Me 482 Energy Conservation & Management: Global Elective In Ktu –S8
Autonomous preheating of combustion reactants A separate combustion chamber supplied with low-quality fuel can warrant economy of high-quality fuel in the main installation. The enrichment would be not necessary after introduction of the autonomous preheating of combustion reactants. The energy economy of high quality fuel would be more than two times greater in comparison with the energy consumption within the autonomous preheater.
This method could be also applied for utilization of top gases from shaft furnaces in copper metallurgy. Jet convection chamber for the preliminary preheating of the rolling charge This type has been introduced in western and Japanese steel plants Fig. Owing to the installation of a combustion gas fan, this system also enables us to increase the size of a recuperator.
The jet chamber can be applied not only for the sake of fuel conservation, but also for technological reasons if the heating furnace is supplied simultaneously with cold and hot charge.
The equalization of the initial charge temperature is more important than the fuel conservation, because according to our calculations  a similar economic effect of fuel conservation can be attained by means of an increased size of a recuperator with a forced draft Fig. Installation of waste-heat boilers This is reasonable only in the case when the internal utilization of waste heat to meet the needs of the analyzed process is not possible or not sufficient. In iron metallurgy, a waste-heat boiler may be installed for the open-hearth furnaces, steel converters, sinter plants, heating furnaces, and cooling of hot rolling products.
Important possibilities also appear in copper metallurgy for anode and cathode smelting furnaces. In this case, waste-heat boilers should be installed between a furnace and a recuperator because it causes solidification of liquid dust in the radiative chamber of the boiler.It introduces basic methods for designing and sizing cost-effective systems and determining whether it is economically efficient to invest in specific energy efficiency or renewable energy projects.
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