most famous works of Sigmund Freud, calculated for a wide readership. In its first However you may not store or transmit the PDF files (except the preview. PDF | On Jan 1, , Lauren M. Lipner and others published Psychoanalysis. Sigmund Freud (–), an Austrian neurologist and. What Freud believed ○ Everything you do is motivated by inner unconscious forces. ○ We are driven by the libido or sexual energy. (sometimes referred to.
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Psychoanalytic theory and practice originated in the late nineteenth century in the work of Sigmund Freud (). It offers a distinctive way of thinking. original "Five Lectures on Psychoanalysis" by S. Freud , from Library of Congress. The Origin and Development of Psychoanalysis - by Sigmund Freud. 'Psychoanalysis offered a radically new perspective, one that augmented and complemented the . Psychoanalysis is the creation of Sigmund Freud.
In the Middle Ages they would have burned me. Now they are content with burning my books. Quote by Sigmund Freud A Look on Freud's Theories While Freud was an original thinker, his theories and studies were influenced by the works of other scholars including Breuer and Charcot. However, Freud developed his own scientific studies that were different from the theories of his colleagues.
In fact, much of his concepts were rooted from his past such as in his work entitled The Interpretation of Dreams. Here, he delved into the emotional crisis he went through during his father's death, as well as his battles with dreams that occurred to him in his earlier years.
Freud also admitted that deep down, he had fantasies in which he secretly wished for his father to die as he viewed him as his rival for the affection of his mother, and it was one of his bases for the Oedipus Complex theory.
Freud's Theory of Unconscious Sigmund Freud believed that neuroses and other abnormal mental conditions are rooted from one's unconscious mind. However, these issues are slowly revealed through various means such as obsessive behavior, slips of the tongue and dreams.
His theory was to go deeper into the underlying cause that produce these problems, wich can be accomplished by inspecting the conscious mind that is impacted by one's unconscious. Freud also worked on the analysis of drives or instincts and how these arise in each person.
According to him, there are two main categories of insticts such as Eros or life instict and Thanatos or death instinct.
The former included instincts that are erotic and self-preserving while the latter was involved in drives that lead to cruelty and self-destruction. Thus, human actions are not purely rooted from motivations that are sexual in nature since death instincts barely involve sexuality as the motivating factor. Infantile Sexuality The theory of infantile sexuality by Freud was influenced by Breuer's concept that traumatic events during one's childhood years can greatly impact adulthood.
In addition, Freud claimed that the desire for sexual pleasure had its early beginnings during infancy as babies gain pleasure from sucking. He referred to this as the oral stage of development, which is followed by the anal stage, where the latter is involved in the energy release through the anus. Afterwards, a young child begins to experience an interest in the genitals during the phallic stage, as well as a sexual attraction for parent of the opposite sex.
Lastly, the latency period is the stage of life when sexual desires are less pronounced, and it may end during the puberty period. Freud believed that unresolved conflicts during childhood can negatively impact mental health once a person reaches adulthood.
For instance, homosexuality was viewed as the result of issues linked with the Oedipus Complex, which remained unaddressed. It was also the product of a child's inability to identify with his or her parent of the same sex.
Structure of the Mind Freud claimed that the mind had three structural elements that included the id, ego and the super-ego. It was the id that involved instinctual sexual instincts, which must be satisfied.
The go is one's conscious self while the super-ego involved the conscience. In contrast to the id, the ego follows the reality principle as it operates in both the conscious and unconscious mind. The superego develops during early childhood when the child identifies with the same sex parent and is responsible for ensuring moral standards are followed. The superego operates on the morality principle and motivates us to behave in a socially responsible and acceptable manner.
The basic dilemma of all human existence is that each element of the psychic apparatus makes demands upon us that are incompatible with the other two.
Inner conflict is inevitable. For example, the superego can make a person feel guilty if rules are not followed. When there is a conflict between the goals of the id and superego, the ego must act as a referee and mediate this conflict. The ego can deploy various defense mechanisms Freud, , to prevent it from becoming overwhelmed by anxiety. In many cases, the result was some form of neurotic illness. Freud sought to understand the nature and variety of these illnesses by retracing the sexual history of his patients.
This was not primarily an investigation of sexual experiences as such.
Freud believed that children are born with a libido — a sexual pleasure urge. To be psychologically healthy, we must successfully complete each stage. This particular theory shows how adult personality is determined by childhood experiences. Freud considered dreams to be the royal road to the unconscious as it is in dreams that the ego's defenses are lowered so that some of the repressed material comes through to awareness, albeit in distorted form.
Dreams perform important functions for the unconscious mind and serve as valuable clues to how the unconscious mind operates.
Sigmund Freud (Key Sociologists)
On 24 July , Freud had his own dream that was to form the basis of his theory. He had been worried about a patient, Irma, who was not doing as well in treatment as he had hoped.
Freud, in fact, blamed himself for this, and was feeling guilty. Freud dreamed that he met Irma at a party and examined her.
Sigmund Freud - The Father of Psychoanalysis
He then saw a chemical formula for a drug that another doctor had given Irma flash before his eyes and realized that her condition was caused by a dirty syringe used by the other doctor. Freud's guilt was thus relieved.
Freud interpreted this dream as wish-fulfillment. He had wished that Irma's poor condition was not his fault and the dream had fulfilled this wish by informing him that another doctor was at fault.
Based on this dream, Freud went on to propose that a major function of dreams was the fulfillment of wishes. Freud distinguished between the manifest content of a dream what the dreamer remembers and the latent content, the symbolic meaning of the dream i. The manifest content is often based on the events of the day. The process whereby the underlying wish is translated into the manifest content is called dreamwork. The purpose of dreamwork is to transform the forbidden wish into a non-threatening form, thus reducing anxiety and allowing us to continue sleeping.
Dreamwork involves the process of condensation, displacement, and secondary elaboration. For example, a dream about a man may be a dream about both one's father and one's lover. A dream about a house might be the condensation of worries about security as well as worries about one's appearance to the rest of the world.
Displacement takes place when we transform the person or object we are really concerned about to someone else. Freud interpreted this as representing his wish to kill his sister-in-law. If the patient would have really dreamed of killing his sister-in-law, he would have felt guilty. The unconscious mind transformed her into a dog to protect him. Secondary elaboration occurs when the unconscious mind strings together wish-fulfilling images in a logical order of events, further obscuring the latent content.
According to Freud, this is why the manifest content of dreams can be in the form of believable events. Some of these were sexual in nature, including poles, guns, and swords representing the penis and horse riding and dancing representing sexual intercourse.
However, Freud was cautious about symbols and stated that general symbols are more personal rather than universal. In an amusing example of the limitations of universal symbols, one of Freud's patients, after dreaming about holding a wriggling fish, said to him 'that's a Freudian symbol - it must be a penis!
Freud explored further, and it turned out that the woman's mother, who was a passionate astrologer and a Pisces, was on the patient's mind because she disapproved of her daughter being in analysis.
It seems more plausible, as Freud suggested, that the fish represented the patient's mother rather than a penis! Freud attracted many followers, who formed a famous group in called the "Psychological Wednesday Society. We hold before him the difficulties of the method, its length, the exertions and the sacrifices which it will cost him; and, as to the result, we tell him that we make no definite promises, that the result depends on his conduct, on his understanding, on his adaptability, on his perseverance.
We have, of course, excellent motives for conduct which seems so perverse, and into which you will perhaps gain insight at a later point in these lectures. Do not be offended, therefore, if, for the present, I treat you as I treat these neurotic patients. Frankly, I shall dissuade you from coming to hear me a second time.
With this intention I shall show what imperfections are necessarily involved in the teaching of psychoanalysis and what difficulties stand in the way of gaining a personal judgment. I shall show you how the whole trend of your previous training and all your accustomed mental habits must unavoidably have made you opponents of psychoanalysis, and how much you must overcome in yourselves in order to master this instinctive opposition.
Of course I cannot predict how much psychoanalytic understanding you will gain from my lectures, but I can promise this, that by listening to them you will not learn how to undertake a psychoanalytic treatment or how to carry one to completion. Furthermore, should I find anyone among you who does not feel satisfied with a cursory acquaintance with psychoanalysis, but who would like to enter into a more enduring relationship with it, I shall not only dissuade him, but I shall actually warn him against it.
As things now stand, a person would, by such a choice of profession, ruin his every chance of success at a university, and if he goes out into the world as a practicing physician, he will find himself in a society which does not understand his aims, which regards him with suspicion and hostility, and which turns loose upon him all the malicious spirits which lurk within it.
However, there are always enough individuals who are interested in anything which may be added to the sum total of knowledge, despite such inconveniences.References  ABEL. The boy enters the CEdipus phase. While his theory provides entities, there is an absence of correspondence rules, which means they are impossible to be identified unless referenced to the behavior that is believed to be the cause of the problem.
However, he became more interested in treating psychological disorders, so he decided to pursue a private practice that focused on this field. Hence the importance of his writings for some later sociologists. The fulfillment gardless of the intensity of sexual desire.
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